following information on Minerals,
Qsciences Oral Sprays, Nutrition and Herbs was complied from the sources listed
at the end of various articles, by © Ted & Kathryn Kapela.
Special Note: The Nutritional Implications of Bariatric Surgery - Following surgery, do the patients have to take vitamin and mineral supplements for the rest of their lives? -- The answer is YES !! - - - - and Qsciences Oral Spray's are the only satisfactory answer.
Imagine not having to choke on those large pills and suffer morning sickness? Imagine peaceful and natural sleep? Imagine stress releaf without medication?
Index to Topics - - Click on item underlined:::::
1. Are Supplements
Really Necessary? - -
The significance and impact that QSciences is having
in the Wellness Industry can only be realized
Medical professionals, hospitals, Wellness Professionals etc. World Wide
The key to health and well being is found in maintaining a proper nutritional
foundation. Excess's or deficiencies in any of the elements needed by
the body could account for many diseases. Various parts of the body
cannot be restored or rejuvenated without proper nutritional support.
The following two statements indicate the need for supplements: "In
the absence of minerals, vitamins have no function" - Dr. Mathias
Many think that eating correctly is sufficient in maintaining good health. But the reality is that our highly processed fast food society makes it very difficult to follow a healthy diet. Processing and preserving of foods for market make it difficult for our body to digest, absorb, and metabolize the foods we eat. Consider that many of our fruits and vegetables are picked green, before they absorb the proper life giving nutrients, and that our soil is largely depleted of the essential elements. Nutrient depleted soils result in nutrient depleted foods. We cannot properly convert foods that have been irradiated, devitalized, are deficient in vitamins, enzymes, fiber, nutrients, and loaded with additives. Because we are not getting the vitamin and mineral nutrition our bodies need from the food we eat, mineral supplementation is therefore required. The importance of nutritional supplements is widely recognized in the scientific community and among nutritionally oriented physicians.
Always remember, since every disease takes time to develop, eliminating the disease will take time too!
"Minerals are required by the human body for a myriad of functions including mineralization of bone and teeth, muscle function, and numerous enzymatic reactions. Minerals are principally absorbed through the villi, the highly vascularized projections extending from the epithelial cells of the small intestine mucosa into the small intestine lumen. Absorption of minerals by the small intestine is highly variable and is dependent upon the chemical form of the mineral, the speed of passage of the food through the small intestine, the degree of digestion of the food, and the presence of other minerals and compounds which react with the minerals being absorbed. Minerals bound to organic material tends to be better absorbed than most mineral salts. Because of this, minerals chelated (or bound) to amino acids or protein peptides (protein fragments) have found favor as nutritional supplements for intestinal absorption.
The absorption of minerals by the small intestine mucosa is by active (energy requiring) transport, and may occur against a concentration gradient. The most important active transport mechanism is shared by a group of required minerals, the di-ionic cations. These all posses a double positive charge in solution. These minerals, all required for human nutrition, are calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium, chromium, manganese, copper, cobalt, vanadium, tin, and nickel. Because of the shared uptake mechanism, increased intake of one of the minerals may flood receptor sites, and create a deficiency of one or more other minerals. For example, a supplement taken to correct an iron or calcium deficiency could result in a zinc or manganese deficiency. For this reason, some nutritionists recommend taking mineral supplements together at the same time as a multi-mineral tablet.
The latest option for mineral supplementation, which by-passes this absorption-site competition, is the absorption of solutions of minerals directly into the blood-stream through the buccal and sublingual mucosa of the mouth, or through the nasal mucosa. Active uptake of minerals occurs here as well, but does not compete with mineral absorption from absorbed food in the small intestine. The net result is an effective form of mineral supplementation without the risk of creating a secondary mineral deficiency." Steve Smith, 1996
There is so much new information about vitamins, minerals and herbs that it is almost impossible to keep up with it! Unfortunately, my medical colleagues don't usually offer much help because they are notoriously skeptical about vitamins, minerals and herbs, as well as woefully uninformed about nutrition in general.
Most people don't eat enough proper foods. Moreover, medications, lifestyle and emotional stress drains people of nutrients even if the ARE eating the right foods. Finally, the food industry has radiated, refined, processed and generally altered our foods to such an extent that we just don't know what we have done to their essence.
As Chiropractors well know, our body is a functional and integrated energy system. When our energy is balanced and aligned then we are well and full of vitality. Vitamins, minerals and herbs are some of nature's best catalysts for energy balance and functional integration The body uses chemicals in these substances to build and repair bones, nerves and other organs. It's extremely complicated, and the old recommended use of vitamins, minerals and herbs no longer reflect our changing needs for total wellness. Until recently, we had not even known that folic acid could prevent neural tube defects (spina bifida) in unborn babies. Nor did we know that antioxidants could decrease heart attacks, stroke, cancers and cataracts.
There are a myriad of special circumstances too. Smokers require extra Vitamin C, B-12 and folic acid. "Social Drinkers" need more Vitamin C, B-12 and Zinc. People who regularly use antacid; (Maalox, etc.) should take more thiamine and calcium. Antibiotics tend to deplete Vitamin C and riboflavin. Women on oral contraceptives may need more Vitamin C, B6 and E. Blood pressure medicine may deplete the body of Vitamin B6, Zinc and calcium. Cholesterol-lowering medicine may lower Vitamin A, B12, D, K and folic acid. Even laxatives can deplete the body of Vitamin A, D, E, K, B12 and C.
What nutritional supplements should people take? What are special circumstances? How do you judge a brand's quality? How can you ensure the best absorption of the supplements that you swallow? How can we avoid acid indigestion that accompanies even the most expensive supplements? I urge anyone wishing answers to these questions to investigate the "Oral Spray" line of nutritional supplements! Injections and pills are no longer necessary because this patented delivery system by-passes the stomach to get right into the bloodstream with a jolt of healthful energy that our patients need to get through the day. There is nothing else like it..
Believe me, a well-balanced diet complemented with a comprehensive formula of ethical and quality vitamins, minerals and herbs is what I call: "Wellness Insurance"
I would be honored to be your "Medical Wellness Insurance Consultant". I personally believe that health is primarily determined by personal responsibility, self value and reverence for life.
Larry Traub M.D., F.A.A.P.
Several nutritional supplements have been shown to be affective enhancers of physical performance among athletes as well as non-athletes. These substances, called ergogenic supplements, have been proven to enhance measurable indices of human performance. True ergogenic substances have been shown to help accomplish one or more of the following goals: enhancing physical performance, reducing exercise rebound time, promoting increased muscle mass, and metabolizing stored fat. This report outlines the use of nutritional supplements of proven effectiveness in improving human performance. These are natural compounds which are required for muscle exertion. Ergogenic supplements are effective only when supported by a regular exercise program and adequate general nutrition, and may improve performance by 10 - 50%.
Salt (sodium chloride) is the principal electrolyte of the human body. Adequate salt intake for optimum exercise performance is usually by normal dietary salt intake.(1) Excessive use of salt tablets or salt supplementation should be avoided, since excessive sodium may induce potassium excretion and loss.(1-3) Clinical trials have shown that electrolyte consumption (minus salt, including potassium) during exercise often improves performance.(4-7) Consumption of potassium supplements has been shown to prevent muscle cramping and heat stroke in susceptible individuals.(8-11)
The availability of carbohydrate to muscles is a limiting factor in exercise performance and is closely related to fatigue.(12-18) Glucose is the principal source of energy in human metabolism. A limited supply of glucose is stored in muscle and liver tissue as glycogen. Once depleted, the muscle must rely on blood glucose for an energy source. Once blood glucose levels fall below normal physiological levels, fatigue and performance deterioration occurs rapidly. The maintenance of glucose supply to working muscles through an effective program of nutritional supplementation delays fatigue and prolongs performance.12-18 Blood glucose levels may also be maintained during exercise by gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose by the breakdown of amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as valine and leucine).12-18 This energy source may account for 5 - 10% of the energy used during long-term endurance exercise.
Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are useful supplements for exercise. These nutrients serve two important functions in exercise physiology: providing building blocks for new muscle mass production, and preventing muscle mass loss during periods of intense exertion. Essential amino acids are those amino acids which are not made by the body, and must be consumed. Clinical studies have found that increased amino acid intake tends to increase lean body mass, strength, and muscle size. Loss of muscle mass is especially important during the initial month of training or increased training, when protein needs of the body may be elevated by 50 - 100%.18,19
Exercise increases the oxidative processes of muscles, leading to increased generation of free radicals and free radical reaction products in humans.20-26 Exercise of increased intensity increases free radical production 26 as well as increasing anti-oxidant metabolism in humans27 with exercise fatigue.20-22 All this evidence strongly suggests the value of anti-oxidants (such as Vitamin E) in preventing free radical damage to muscle tissue during strenuous exercise and to delaying the onset of fatigue.
Supplementation with several of the B complex vitamins have been shown to enhance athletic performance. Thiamine (Vitamin B-1) resulted in consistent and significant improvements in anaerobic thresholds, heart rates, and blood glucose levels during vigorous aerobic exercise.26 Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) supplementation increases efficiency of oxygen utilization for long term aerobic exertion.29
L-Carnitine is a alpha-hydroxy acid which participates in the conversion of fatty acids in muscle tissue to metabolic energy. Upon intense exertion, a depression of muscle carnitine may be measured.29,30 Carnitine supplementation in humans results in enhanced exercise performance30,31 and increased fat utilization during exercise.30,33-36
Co-Enzyme Q-10 is similar to carnitine in that it is essential to cellular energy production. Intense or exhaustive exercise leads to the loss of co-enzyme Q-10 from blood.37-39 Clinical trials in humans have shown increased exercise capacity,40-45 cardiac function,40-43 and lipid utilization.42-45 Co-Enzyme Q-10 has consistently shown ergogenic effects for submaximal and maximal aerobic exercise, and appears to be effective for anaerobic exercise as well. Ginseng root is a health tonic used for centuries by Asian cultures.
Ginseng is useful as a performance supplement to quicken rebound time, increase muscular strength, and reduce oxygen requirements of the muscles under exertion.46,47
Although not directly ergogenic, natural circulation enhancers such as oil of peppermint and garlic are effective at increasing vascular blood flow, and hence increasing the availability of oxygen, glucose, and cofactors to the tissues where they are needed.
Stephen R. Smith - 12/96
Imagine not having to choke on those large pills and suffer morning sickness? Imagine not having to worry about the little blue pill? Imagine peaceful and natural sleep? Imagine stress releaf without medication?
While the statement "...lacking minerals, vitamins are useless..." is accurate, mineral supplementation is the building block for proper nutrition. Minerals are like the body of your car. Vitamins are the fuel that makes it perform. In the old days, we used carburetors to get fuel into the engine, a very inefficient method. Today, computerized fuel injection extracts the most efficient use of fuel in auto's. That comparision could be used when discussing Oral Spray (buccal absorption) of nutrients and minerals. Oral Spray technology delivers fuel to the body directly where it is needed, into the blood stream in the form needed - water soluable and vegetable based. This process also makes fat soluble vitamins act water soluble. See "Vitamins" "Herbs" "Nutrients" buttons to left for a more detailed info. See below for more information on "Buccal Absorption".
Vitamin A: (Retinol)
Vitamin E (Tocopherol):
Vitamin K (Menaquinone):
B5 (Pantothenic Acid):
At least 24 elements are essential for life. Minerals are essential to physical and mental health. They are a basic part of all cells, particularly blood, nerve, muscle, bones, teeth, and soft tissue. Some are essential for functional support such as the electrolyte minerals (sodium, potassium, and chloride), that help regulate the fluid and acid-base balance of our bodies, are part of enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions, aid energy production, metabolism, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and cell permeability. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are the building blocks of our body, and provide the fuel to maintain life, promote cell and tissue growth and other biochemical support. Minerals contain no calories or energy in themselves. Minerals can be simply defined as chemical molecules that cannot be reduced to simpler substances. The main elements essential to health are the macrominerals; calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, sodium, magnesium and silicon. The trace minerals are; iron, copper, zinc, iodine, cobalt, bromide, boron, manganese, selenium, fluorine, molybdenum, vanadium, arsenic and chromium. Other minerals contained in the body include some of the toxic metals; lead, aluminum, cadmium, and mercury. See "Minerals" button on left for more detailed info.
Orally absorbed Minerals are breakthru new technology solutions of water soluable minerals with a positive charge that make the minerals small enough to be absorbed at the cellular level. This results in a highly absorbable product that is highly effective. If you shine a pencil laser through the water, you would see no "sprakling" or items in suspension.
Colloidals on the other hand, are mineral particles in micron size suspended in a solution by various means, such as protein; and many times are made up of ionic compounds such as chromium chloride or silver nitrate. If you shine a pencil laser thru the solution, you can see the particles in suspension. Notice the label that warns that some settling may occur, and to shake well before using! It is estimated that only 1% to 5% of colloidals and compounds are able to be broken down by the body. Therefore, 2000mg of a product would result on maybe 20-30mg being absorbed, while most of the remaining product builds up in the body creating problems.
way to look at colloidals, it is like trying to put a quarter into a
dime slot. When the body requires certain minerals, the cells will "grab"
any mineral it needs and try to absorbe them. If the particle size is
too great ( as with colloidals etc.), the cells cannot get what they
need, and keep on "grabbing" more. That is how toxic buildup
of minerals may happen. Once the cells are satisfied, they release the other
minerals they have been holding on to, causing a "detox" effect.
In fact, since these minerals are absorbed so well ( near 100% absorption)
and so quickly, the effects are noticed very quickly or within a few
Gallon = 4 Quarts = 8 Pints = 128oz. = 256 tablespoons = 768 teaspoons
Acidic = 0 Neutral
= 7 Body Normal = 7.2 Alkaline
Certain minerals work better at night and others work better during the day. There are also minerals and vitamins that work together, activating each other.
BUCCAL ABSORPTION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES -- Buccal absorption for many biomolecules has been demonstrated. Vitamins, amino acids, simple sugars, hormones, barbiturates, alkaloids, opiates, methadrines, ephedrines, straight chain fatty acids and minerals are all well absorbed, according to an extensive body of scientific articles in referenced journals.
Buccal absorption occurs by simple diffusion and by active (energy requiring) transport. In general, molecules without a physiological requirement are absorbed by simple diffusion. Active uptake mechanisms are present for most nutrients which have been examined. Active uptake is more efficient than simple diffusion, and may occur against a concentration gradient. Active uptake of the following nutrients has been demonstrated by buccal mucosa: thiamine , niacinamide , fatty acids , minerals and electrolytes , vitaminC , amino acids and simple sugars .
Most of the oral epithelia (lining of the mouth) have a high absorption capability, including the buccal cavity (the inside of the cheeks and the roof of the mouth), the sublingual epithelia (under the tongue) and the gingiva (the gums). These tissues are heavily vascularized (many small blood vessels). The absorbed molecule quickly passes through the plasma membrane and into circulation in the rich capillary bed surrounding these tissues. Buccal absorption is the fastest and most efficient method of application for most nutrients and drugs tested, with the exception that invasive intravenous injection is faster in some cases.
The factors affecting the efficiency of buccal absorption are different from those affecting absorption through the mucosa of the small intestine. The kinetics of buccal absorption are affected principally by the surface area for absorption, the solubility of the molecule and its carrier fluid in the saliva, the pH of the saliva and the pH of the carrier solution and the rate of ionization of the molecule and the rate of salivation of the subject. Intestinal absorption of nutrients and drugs present a series of limitations which do not occur with oral absorption.
Intestinal absorption of nutrients is reduced due to solubility problems of the tablet. If the tablet is not sufficiently dissolved by the time the absorptive region of the small intestine is reached, absorption is reduced. Conversely, if the molecule or ion is too soluble, its residence time on the surface of the mucosa will be minimal and absorption will not occur.
The speed and precision of buccal absorption allows for accurate and timely administration of nutrients and drugs. Buccal absorption occurs within seconds, and is complete within minutes. Intestinal absorption occurs within one half hour to two and a half hours, depending on the nutritional status of the subject and the substance being absorbed.
Buccal absorption allows for a much more precise administration of a nutrient or drug compared to ingestion, and thus less wastage. Optimum blood concentrations may be maintained by periodic spraying. Typical blood concentrations of ingested nutrients and drugs show a peak concentration at a higher than physiologically useful level, followed by a valley of blood concentration lower than the physiological requirements. Less of the molecule is biologically available, and an additional clearance burden is placed on the liver and kidneys.
Since many nutrients may share the same active uptake mechanism in the intestinal mucosa, they may tend to compete with each other for absorption sites. For example, taking a normal tableted dietary supplement of iron may lead to a dietary deficiency for zinc, which uses the same uptake mechanism and is outcompeted for absorption sites by the supplemented iron. Buccal absorption circumvents this occurrence.
Buccal absorption allows the administration of nutrients and other biologically active substances without the functional chemicals required for tableting. These are often the cause of reported nutrient and drug intolerance,and their disclosure in products manufactured in the USA is not required. These chemicals include binders and exipients such as gelatin extracted from animal hooves, stearates and tallow from animal fat, starches, and silicates, as well as coating containing waxes and shellacs.
Since molecules absorbed bucally are not subject to the low pH environment of the stomach, degradation and ubsequent reduction of biological activity of acid-sensitive molecules does not occur. Similarly, buccal absorption avoids elimination by the liver on the first pass through the circulatory system, which occurs for molecules absorbed through the intestinal mucosa. - Stephen R. Smith
Life Sciences, 1983. 32:1355.
HAVE YOU EVER READ THE INGREDIENT LABEL ON YOUR VITAMIN PILL BOTTLE ? ?
Many contain ingredients that do not contribute at all to your nutritional needs. These items are termed EXCIPIENTS (ik si-pe-ant). Excipient: a usually inert substance (as gum arabic or starch) that forms a vehicle (as for a drug). Additionally, details on these and other "inert fillers & binders" (wheat,whey, etc.) are not all required to be listed and may be changed from batch to batch without notice to anyone. For example: we found we were allergic to certain forms of "whey" when a generic manufacturer changed the "inert" ingredients in one of his products, as he ran out of the normal "inert filler"
Makers of pills, tablets, or caplets have standard size molds for the precise size of their pill. It does not matter what the active ingredients are because the manufacturer will add fillers, binders, waxes, and other excipients to take up the space. A filler does nothing more than take up volume and some common fillers are talcum powder, sugar, whey and yeast.
If a company claims it does not use any of these common fillers, then they surely use dehydrogenated animal fat. They have to have something to fill up the space within the mold. Also they must use wax or some kind of binders to make the components stick together when they squeeze everything to make the pill.
The molds must be sprayed with a releasing agent which is another form of wax or grease to allow the pill to drop out of the mold. Some tablets are coated with a shiny coating. This is normally shellac - the same as used on wood floors and boats! It is a mixture of shellac and 200 proof alcohol that makes time release capsules. There is a little bit of active ingredient and fillers coated with the shellac/alcohol mixture. The percentage of alcohol controls the time the pill takes to dissolve in the stomach.
Normal tablets must meet U.S. Pharmaceutical standards here or European standards in Europe. Pharmaceutical standards means tablets must dissolve within 15 to 30 minutes once in your stomach. To test your tablets, place white vinegar in a dish or glass and drop in your pill. Check periodically. It should dissolve within 15 to 30 minutes to meet U.S.P. standards. If it doesn't, then you are paying a high price for talcum powder! You can keep this test up for 45 to 60 minutes, but if the pill is not dissolved by then, it can't possibly generate any benefit to your body.
Included in this list are:
OTHER ITEMS LISTED
Annatto, Titanium Dioxide, Dextrose, Lactose, Sucrose, Starch, Partially Hydrogenated Coconut Oil, Magnesium Stearate, Modified Cellulose Gum, Crospovidone, Hydroxypropl, Methylcellulose,Triscetin, Celostearyl, Alcohol Artificial Flavors, Gelatin, FD&C #40, FD&C #6, FD&C #2, Sodium Benzonate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, etc. etc. etc. ......
ALL PILLS CONTAIN MOST OR SOME OF THE ABOVE ! !
Qsciences Oral Spray VITAMINS CONTAIN ABSOLUTELY NONE ! !
The Physician's Desk Reference details the absorption rate of various types of products in chart form, indicating that pills, gel caps and sub-lingual products have low absorption rates in the body. Qsciences Molecular Oral spray technology has near 100% absorption
Herbs have been used for many thousands of years to maintain human health and to prevent disease. Herbs may justly be considered the first medicines of mankind. Herbs had reduced popularity for the treatment of disease after the advent of patented medicines. During the last 10 years, however, herbs have gained a substantial presence in the "over-the-counter" market in the United States and particularly in Europe. In Germany, for example, herbal remedies are available side-by-side with conventional remedies. The growing popularity of herbs may be attributed to three factors - they are effective, economical, and have few side effects.
Herbs are effective remedies due to one or a number of different active principals each contain. For example, ginseng contains ginsenosides or eleutherosides, garlic contains allicin, and Echinacea contains insulin. Plants use these substances as passive defense mechanisms to control disease and pest infestation. The amount of active principles in herbs vary greatly, depending upon the strain of the plant, where and how it was grown, and how the preparation containing the active principal is prepared. For this reason, standardized herbs and herbal preparations are preferable, as they supply uniform amounts of the active constituents
Herbs may be taken in the following forms; in the fresh form, in tablets or capsules, as teas, or in a concentrated tincture (extract). Eating fresh herbs is not possible for most people, due to supply and perishability problems. Tableted and capsule forms have the disadvantage of uncertain digestibility and absorption, and contain unwanted gelatins, waxes, excipients and other ingredients. Teas are useful preparations, but active ingredient concentration is hard to determine, and bio-activity may be low due to heat degradation. Standardized tinctures are considered the most useful form, since they supply uniform levels of active ingredients in a concentrated and highly bio-active form. Active constituents in tinctures are absorbed in the mouth buccally and sub-lingually, as well as by the small intestine. - Stephen R. Smith
Fatty acids are the major constituents of fats. Fatty acids which are required by the body but are not manufactured are termed fatty acids (or EFA's). EFA's have vitamin-like action, as they are required in small concentrations for normal metabolic processes. EFA's are unsaturated fatty acids, as they have unsaturated carbon atoms (at the third or sixth from the last position). For this reason, EFA's are also called omega three and omega six fatty acids. The requirements for EFA's are not specific. That is, any combination of a number of EFA's can satisfy the total requirement. The most commonly known EFA is gamma linoleic acid (GLA), an omega3 fatty acid. Linoleic and arachadonic acids are examples of omega 6 EFA's.
Essential fatty acids are rare in land animals and plants, with the notable exceptions of borage oil and evening primrose oil. The principal sources of EFA's are marine algae. Fish and invertebrate animals are also excellent sources of EFA's.
Essential fatty acids are required for the formation of potent bio-molecules known as prostaglandins. Prostaglandins promote or inhibit inflammatory response, aggregation and adhesion of platelets, regulation of blood pressure and constriction and dilation of blood vessels.1
Epidemiologic studies of native Alaskans consuming high levels of essential fatty acids as part of their high fish diet first revealed a positive effect of essential fatty acids on coronary heart disease.2,3 Since that time, it has been found that essential fatty acids can effect platelet function and inflammation responses, and may thereby influence the development of certain chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis4 .- Stephen R. Smith
REFERENCES - 1. Recommended Daily Allowances,
10th Edition, 1989, National Research Council.
Imagine not having to choke on those large pills and suffer morning sickness? Imagine not having to worry about the little blue pill? Imagine peaceful and natural sleep? Imagine stress releaf without medication?
Prenatal multivitamins are multivitamins which are especially formulated to meet the needs of the pregnant and lactating mother. In addition, they are critically important for women who feel they may become pregnant.
A good prenatal multivitamin provides recommended proportions of the water and fat soluble vitamins. The most important aspect of the prenatal is additional added folic acid.
Folic acid supplementation has been known to significantly reduce fetal neural tube deformities such as spina bifida and ancephaly (absence of brain and spinal chord), especially in high risk women whose previous pregnancies have resulted in neural tube deformities1,2. Pregnancy increases the incidence of folic acid deficiency among women with low or marginal intakes of the vitamin3,4 indicating the need for supplementation by this group. Folic acid supplementation is also recommended for pregnant women and women who may become pregnant and have adequate nutritional status. A reduction of premature births occurred with folic acid supplementation of women with adequate health status5, as did a 50% reduction in small-for-date births. - Stephen R. Smith
REFERENCES - 1. Nutrition Reviews, 1991.
ANTI-OXIDANTS AND HUMAN HEALTH -- Anti-oxidants are chemical compounds which are capable of stopping oxidative damage. A principal mode of operation is to neutralize free radical molecules and prevent their formation. Free radicals are compounds possessing a single electron in the final electron orbital of the molecule rather than the normal pair. They are formed through natural oxidative processes, and may be formed in increased amounts following exposure to environmental toxicity and increased exercise. Anti-oxidants, which may also be termed free radical scavengers, deactivate the reactive electron singlets by bonding with them.
Three anti-oxidants have vitamin status, that is they are required by the human body, and the human body does not synthesize them. These vitamin anti-oxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene (vitamin A precursor). In addition to its specific vitamin role, vitamin C serves general anti-oxidative function in water soluble tissues. Also, in addition to their specific vitamin roles, Vitamins E and beta-carotene serve general anti-oxidative function in fat soluble tissues. Reduced blood levels of all three of these have been shown to occur in patients suffering from a variety of chronic diseases, and supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect, even at levels much higher than the currently accepted Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA's).
Other effective anti-oxidants have been discovered which do not have vitamin status. These include the proanthocyanidins from pine bark and grape seed, bioflavinoids from citrus and rose hips, ghutathione peroxidase and its mediator selenium, and catechins from green tea. These may augment the vitamin anti-oxidants, and may have greater effectiveness at penetrating membrane bound structures.
Consumption of higher levels of vitamin C has been shown to reduce risk of coronary heart disease. Vitamin C has a protective effect on lung function, and daily vitamin C intake in humans has been shown to enhance lung function, even at three times the RDA for the vitamin. Cigarette smoke contains large quantities of free radicals and substances that generate free radicals in the body. Clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that smokers have lower blood levels of vitamin C than non-smokers, even when the same amount of the vitamin are consumed. Passive, or environmental tobacco smoke also resulted in reduced blood vitamin C levels. Vitamin C supplementation has been shown to protect against lipid peroxidation in patients with myocardial infarction. In one 20 year duration study of over 4500 men, consumption of vitamin C (and also beta-carotene and vitamin E as well), resulted in reduced risk of lung cancer in smokers. Vitamin C (as well as beta-carotene), has been shown to reduce the incidence of cataracts in a study of almost 30,000 males. In addition, vitamin C supplementation at levels higher than the current recommended RDA has been shown to enhance general immunity, measured by histamine response.
Vitamin E has also been shown to offer protection against a number of chronic ailments at levels higher than the accepted RDA. It protects against myocardial infarction, slows the rate of clogging of arteries that can lead to heart attacks, and protects against induced cancers in experimental animals. Alzheimer's patients have been shown to have lower blood vitamin E levels compared to healthy individuals.
Beta-carotene supplementation shows similar protective effect against some chronic disease and environmental pollution. Low blood levels of beta-carotene were found to increase the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in one long-term study in humans. In another study, non-melanoma skin tumors were decreased by beta-carotene supplementation.
These citations and a vast number of similar studies are convincing evidence that we all should be supplementing our diets with anti-oxidants. - Stephen R. Smith
REFERENCES 1. American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition. 1994. 59(1) :110-114.
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This site is produced and copyrighted
by team member ID # 16810,
Ted & Kathryn Kapela in New York, USA
Retail and Wholesale for QSciences, Vita-Mist, Oral Sprays for vitamins and minerals, and molecular spray vitamins